About PetAg milk nutritional supplements Esbilac® and KMR® Ready-To-Serve Liquid or Powder
What is a volume/measure/part?
A volume/measure/part is any measuring device you use. It can be a teaspoon, a tablespoon, or even a cup. Inside every can of Esbilac or KMR powder we enclose a two-sided scoop. The large end is a tablespoon and the small end is a teaspoon. You may use either one of these ends for your volume/measure/part or any household measuring cup will serve the same purpose. The idea simply put is that for every one volume/measure/part (teaspoon, tablespoon, cup) of powder you use, you need to mix in two volumes/measures/parts using the same measuring device of water. For example, if you want to make 2 tablespoons of liquid milk replacer, you would mix 1 tablespoon of powder with 2 tablespoons of water.
How much do I feed my puppy/kitten?
Our directions for feeding are based on the weight of the animal. It is important that you have an idea of how much your puppy or kitten weighs. It is best if you can obtain a kitchen or postage scale so that you can weigh the animal every three to four days. If a puppy or kitten is overfed it can lead to intestinal upset and/or bone development problems. Do not let a puppy or kitten nurse until it stops. Watch its belly fill up, but don’t let it become stiff to the touch. A taut belly means they have eaten too much.
We recommend that a puppy or kitten is fed 2 tablespoons of ready to serve liquid or 2 tablespoons of reconstituted powder milk replacer for every 4 ounces (1/4 lb.) of body weight in a 24-hour period. So, for example, if your puppy weighs 8 ounces that would mean he needs to eat 4 tablespoons of formula throughout the course of one day. It is always better to underfeed than to overfeed.
Can I feed Esbilac to a kitten? Can I feed KMR to a puppy?
In cases when KMR cannot be found Esbilac is an alternative for kittens. However, it is not recommended to feed KMR to your puppy. It may cause diarrhea. KMR contains too much protein and not enough fat for puppies.
Why are the fat and protein levels in Esbilac/KMR liquid different than in the powders?
When you read the Guaranteed Analysis on a can of liquid milk replacer and a can of powder milk replacer you are reading values for the product in that particular can. The guarantees for powdered milk replacer are much higher because the numbers listed are without water added. If you look at the values for moisture, you’ll notice that the moisture level on the can of ready-to-serve liquid is much higher than on the can of powder. Once you have added your 2 parts water to the powder the fat and protein levels will match those in the liquid.
Why can’t I just feed cow’s milk or goat’s milk as a sole source of nutrients to the puppy or kitten?
Milk from a cow is designed by nature to raise a calf. Milk from a goat is designed by nature to raise a kid. Milk that is produced by a bitch or queen is designed by nature to feed a puppy or kitten. Our puppy and kitten milk replacers have been formulated to closely match bitch’s or queen’s milk. The protein and fat levels in mother’s milk are much higher than those of cow’s or goat’s milk and the lactose levels are considerably lower. Other essential vitamins and amino acids, which are required for proper development of puppies and kittens, have been added to our formulas as well. Likewise, canned evaporated milks or human infant formula are not a good choice for raising a healthy puppy or kitten.
Why shouldn’t I use a blender when mixing the powder?
The processing procedures for Esbilac and KMR to make an “instantized” powder easily separate the fat when over mixed. One of the fat sources for Esbilac and KMR is butterfat, which with strenuous mixing can cause greasy lumps to form in the formula. A blender may be used when mixing larger quantities (more than one cup of liquid at a time) you set the blender on the “pulse” or “burst” setting and only blend for a few seconds at a time until the powder is completely disbursed.
Why doesn’t the reconstituted powder look like the ready-to-serve liquid?
The processing procedures for manufacturing each product are slightly different. By virtue of being a powdered product it is never going to mix up to look like the ready -to-serve liquid. For example, powdered milk never mixes up to quite the same consistency and appearance as the milk you buy at the grocery store. To see a bit of grainy consistence after you have mixed the powder is perfectly normal.
I’m using the powder and sometimes the nipple gets clogged, what can I do?
First you should check the opening in the nipple. If you made the opening with a hot needle, check to make sure the hole did not close up after pulling the needle out. Be sure when you pierce the nipple with a hot needle you leave the needle in the nipple until both have cooled off, otherwise the latex will just melt back together. You can also cut an “X” in the end of the nipple using a scissors, razor blade or sharp knife. Once again, make sure the opening goes through the end of the nipple. The ideal opening is one that will gently drip, without squeezing, when the bottle is turned upside down.
Must the powder be refrigerated?
Esbilac and KMR powders are milk-based and contain fat and therefore have the potential to spoil under certain conditions. It can also experience bacterial growth when stored improperly. The can of powder should be kept in the refrigerator or freezer after it has been opened. The powders will keep in the refrigerator for up to 3 months, or in the freezer for up to 6 months.
Why should the liquid be discarded after 72 hours?
We don’t recommend you keep opened liquid milk replacer in the refrigerator for more than 72 hours in order to avoid bacterial growth in the milk. This growth occurs simply by way of being exposed to the open air. The immune system and gastro-intestinal tract of a young animal is extremely sensitive and you wouldn’t want to jeopardize it by feeding a formula that has been sitting in your refrigerator for weeks. Be safe and feed the animal fresh product.
Must I throw the liquid away if it is not used within 72 hours?
Liquid product can be frozen. Before you open a can, shake well, take out what you will need for the first 24 hours and pour the remaining liquid into an ice cube tray, or any single serving size container. If using an ice cube tray wrap the tray in plastic wrap and place in the freezer. When the cubes are formed pop them out of the tray and store them in an airtight container (like sealable plastic containers or zipper seal bags). You can store the product for up to 6 weeks in the freezer. Thaw the cubes in the refrigerator, at room temperature for about 20 minutes, in a warm water bath, or in the microwave set on defrost or low. Be careful not to boil the milk replacer when heating. Don’t worry if your frozen product turns a dark color. The color change does not affect the nutritional makeup of the product. The original color will return when they have thawed.
Does Esbilac cause cataracts?
Esbilac does not cause juvenile nutritional cataracts. This is not to say that puppies fed Esbilac will not develop cataracts. There are many types of cataracts, and even the most nutritionally correct diet cannot prevent hereditary cataracts from forming. If the puppies are overly stressed, ill, or on antibiotic therapy they may still develop cataracts because these things can make it difficult for their bodies to benefit from the nutrients in their diet. Nutritional cataracts tend to resolve or reduce in severity by eight weeks of age. In many instances they may almost completely disappear by the time a dog is six to twelve months old.
From 1988 to 1989 PetAg sponsored a study at Colorado State University to find what was causing cataracts in puppies fed a commercial milk replacer. Through these studies it was determined that by adding the essential amino acids L-arginine and DL-methionine the instance of cataract development was eliminated. All Esbilac (powder and liquid) produced after June, 1989 contains these two amino acids. A detailed review of these studies is available on this website.
I was feeding my puppy/kitten the liquid then switched to the powder and now it has diarrhea. What happened?
Any change in an animal’s diet can cause intestinal upset, even when switching from our liquids to our powders. Each product has the same nutritional value, the ingredients used and the processing procedures for each are slightly different. Any diet change needs to be made gradually over the course of 4 or 5 days for best results. Start by mixing ¼ of the new diet with ¾ of the old diet, then move to ½ mixed with ½, then ¼ of the old diet with ¾ of the new diet. At this point it should be safe to feed the new diet without upset.
I have been feeding my puppy/kitten Esbilac/KMR for a few days and it hasn’t had a bowel movement. Is it constipated?
Due to the fact that Esbilac and KMR are highly digestible products your puppy or kitten may not have a bowel movement every day. The animal is able to utilize much of the nutrients and there is going to be very little waste. You first need to determine if the animal is in fact constipated. Is the stool too firm? Is it struggling and crying as it tries to go? Have you been stimulating the bowels after every feeding by gently massaging the anal and genital area with a cotton ball that has been dipped in warm water. If yes, the animal may be constipated. If you are feeding the powder, be sure you are mixing it at a rate of 1 part powder for every 2 parts water. A few drops of Karo® syrup added to a feeding usually will alleviate the problem. If the animal is not exhibiting any of these signs chances are it is not constipated.
How much liquid does a can of powder make?
When the powder is mixed one part powder to two parts water
- 6 oz can of KMR makes 30 ounces of formula
- 12 oz can of KMR or Esbilac makes 60 ounces of formula
- 28 oz can of KMR or Esbilac makes 140 ounces of formula
- 5 lb pail of Esbilac makes 3-1/3 gallons of formula